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Maneira Atu Dezenvolve Kampu Petroleum Greater Sunrise

Mario da Costa - Opiniaun
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Teodoro M. mota

Husi: Teodoro M. Mota

Governu atuál via Ministru Petroleum no Rekursu Minarais (MPM), Autoridade Nasionál do Petroleum e Mineral (ANPM) no Timor Gap (TG) presiza servisu makas hodi formuliza estratéjia investimentu no dezenvolvimentu suitor petroleum iha Timor-Leste, nune’e hodi asegura sustentabilidade indústria petroleum no fundu petroleum ba ekonomia Timor-Leste iha jerasaun agora no futuru.

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Kapasidade téknika, kapasidade negosiasaun, buka parseria ho International Oil Company (IOC), kapasidade buka fundu investimentu (investidores) ba atividade esplorasaun minarai no gas iha territóriu Timor-Leste, inklui investimentu ba kampu gas Greater Sunrise (GS) tenke sai ajenda principal ba MPM, TG no ANPM hodi dezempeña. Presiza speed up servisu no opta konseitu dezenvolvimentu petroleum ne’ebé excelente, lais, seguru no baratu tuir boa pratika indústria minarai. Nune’e hodi aselera produsaun kampu GS.

Ita la presiza Pesimista no Politiza kona-ba dadus no lala’ok investimentu ba setór petroleum iha TL ne’ebé kobre investimentu projetu tasi mane hahú dezde 2008. Projetu tasi mane involve auto estrada Suai-Beasu, Supply base Suai, Beasu LNG, Refinaria Betanu, inklui pre no post-fronteira maritima permanente, presiza de’it mak maturidade no konsistensia planu no seriedade aksaun hodi kontinua asegura pipeline mai TL. Presiza mós boa vontade husi governu via MPM, ANPM no TG hodi halo negosiasaun ho Australia, Kompanya Operador no Joint Contract kona-ba futuru dezenvolvimentu kampu GS ne’ebe kontempla ona iha akordu FM sobre opsaun dada pipeline.

Estudus barak, tantu estudu dada pipeline, harii planta LNG no progresu lubuk mak team lideransa petroleum no governu anterior realiza ona, ne’ebé kontribui tebes durante negosiasaun no finalidade FM iha tinan 2018. Estudu ne’ebé governu TL realiza ona hodi hamate propaganda Woodside no tulun Governu TL formuliza polítika investimentu setór minarai iha TL.

Estudu kompostu husi: estudu previabilidade Pipeline TL-Petronas (2007-2008), estudu Bathymetria (Mapa Tasi Okos) ho konsórsiu korea (2007-2008), estudu viabilidade Téknika no Estimasaun kustu ba Planta LNG ho Korean Konsórsiu (2009), estudu Jeotekniku no Seismiku iha Suai no Beasu (2009-2010), estudu Reavaliasaun Téknika no kustu pipeline TL ho JP Kenny 2010, estudu ba Metaocean-PreFEED to FEED marine facility studies, estudu ba Detailed Route Survey ba Pipeline, estudu Impaktu Ambientál no sósiu-ekonómiku ba sentru tolu (Supply Base, Refinaria no Petrokímika.

Iha publikasaun no dadus revela potensia kampu GS, tuir dadus Public information from Northen Territory Government of Australia, rezerva gas provadu no rekuperavel mak 8.4 Trillion Cubic Feet (TCF). Nune’e mós poténsia rezerva gas iha kampu seluk ho naran Evans Shoals nia rezerva no rekuperavel gas mak 6.6 TCF. Prospetus no deskoberta seluk mak hanesan kampu gas Kelp Deep 13 TCF, Chuditch 0.75 Tcf, sst, lokaliza iha ex-JPDA. Poténsia gas hirak nee, boot liu rezerva gas kampu Bayu Undang.

Atu jere poténsia kampu petroleum hira nee, liuliu kampu GS responsabilidade iha Timor Gap (TG) nu’udar kompanya minarai nasionál no ANPM nu’udar órgaun reguladora rekursu petroleum, hamutuk ho kompanya operador no joint venture. TG hanesan representante Estado nian ne’ebé sai na’in ba asoens kampu GS hamutuk 56.56% ho montante osan $ 650 millioens ne’ebé Governo TL sosa husu ConocoPhillips ho Shell iha 16 Abríl 2019.

Saida mak TG presiza halo hodi lori pipe line gas GS mai TL?. Agora ba oin, TG tenke esforsu no servisu makas halo estudu, enkontru no diskusaun intensivamente ho Shareholder Woodside (33.4%) ho Osaka (10%) kona-ba futuru dezenvolvimentu kampu GS, objetivu enkontru ne’e ko’alia oinsá mak atu hamutuk dezenvolve kampu GS liu husi Konseitu ida ne’ebé hotu-hotu tenke tuir (Development Concept) hodi asegura win-win solution ba kompanya no governu; tanba Kampu GS Iha komponente rua mak atu dezenvolve: Upstream no Downstream.

Saida mak upstream?, upstream mak atividade ne’ebé asosia ho explorasaun no produsaun mina no gas ou bain-bain hanaran atividade ne’ebé ligadu ho buka no deskoberta mina no gas, halo perfurasaun ate to’o foti mina no gas husi tasi/rai okos. Midstream mak atividade ne’ebé liga husi upstream ba downstream. Atividade midstream involve transportasaun, pipeline, tanker mina no gas, no ect. Enkuantu downstream mak atividade ne’ebé ligadu ho prosesu likifikasaun ou prosesamentu mina no gas molok fa’an ba merkadu. Atividade downstream involve planta LNG, refinaria, indústria petrokímika no marketing.

Informasaun exploratoriu husi Timor Gap nu’udar national oil company (NOC) investimentu ba upstream no downstream kustu purvolta $ 10.5 billioens to’o $ 12 billioens dollars. Iha parte seluk, kompanya operador Woodside ho joint venture Osaka deklara ona sira sei la investa iha parte downstream. Nune’e TL via Timor Gap mak sei investa fundu 100% ba parte downstream. Perguntas mak nee, fundu investimentu husi ne’ebé?. Enkuantu TL nia fundu petrolifera (FP) ne’ebé rai iha Banku Federal U.S. hela de’it ona +- $ 19 billioens dollars, nune’e Timor Gap (TG) sei evita no la uza FP hodi halo investimentu.

Faze tuir mai, dalan di’ak liu tuir pratika normativa indústria minarai, investimentu ba downstream bele halo husi TG ho nia partnership sein uja fundu petroleum. Partnership mak sei investa engineering, procurement and construction (EPC ou EPC plus finance). EPC plus finance signifika kompanya mak sei investa osan no konstrui projetu intermu investimentu iha pipeline, marine no surface facilities ou planta LNG.

TG ho nia parseria bele halo imprestimu (loan) hodi halo investimentu no sira sei rekopera fali osan bainhira hahú halo produsaun ba kampu GS ho potensia rezerva gas 8.4 TCF no mina 300 MMbbls kondensadu no LPG. Kompanya sei rekopera osan via profit share, cost recovery (CR), internal rate of return (IRR), ho instrumentus fiskal seluk. Ho ida nee, TG tenke servisu makas halo negosiasaun no buka partnership ou IOC hodi investa iha parte downstream. TG ho kompanya EPC bele investa iha parte downstream hodi lori pipeline mai TL no asegura receitas 100% mai TL.

Lee Mós :
Buat hitu ne’ebé mak Korea-Timor hanesan (Part 1)

Husi parte Upstream, kompanya operador ho joint venture konkorda ona katak atividade produsaun fa’an mina hala’o iha plataforma leten ou produs iha tasi laran no fa’an direita ba merkadu, nune’e TG sei hamutuk ho Woodside nu’udar kompanya operador ho Osaka maka sei Dezenvolve.

Husi parte Downstream Woodside rasik hateten ona iha media katak sira sei involve karik to’o de’it hanesan operadór ba fasilidade TLNG. Nune’e atu dezenvolve Downstream produsaun gas, TG tenke servisu makas halo kontratu ho terceira parte ba operasaun ho manutensaun ba TLNG; (bele Badak LNG, Woodside Petroleum, PTT, etc.). TG no ANPM presiza tenke kontinua halo exhibition ou road show hodi promove poténsia petroleum ne’ebé lokalija iha TL, nunee hodi atrai investidores no kompanya minarai internasionál hodi investa no dezenvolve seitro petroleum iha TL.

Atu dezenvolve Downstream TG tenke halo koperasaun no ko’alia ho parseiro interesado no IOC hodi investa iha parte downstream nune’e asegura receitas 100% mai TL.

Downstream rasik iha ninian komponente 3 importante hanesan:

i. Marine Facilities : ne’ebé ita rona no hatene katak TG asina ona Acordo Comercia/Commercial agreement ba EPC + Finance ho CCECC (China Civil Engineering Construction Corporation) iha 26 Abríl 2019, hodi hari fasilidade marinha iha Beaco ho Montante: $ 943 M; Contrato mós iha condisoes ne’ebé presiza parseira tenke kompleta, liuhusi aprovacoes nesesario.

ii. Pipeline: Tuir deklarasaun no informasaun husi team lideransa anterior katak altura ne’ebé TG halo hela negosiasaun/discusaun ida ne’ebé intensivu ho Parte Kompania EUROPIPE husi Alemanha ne’ebé mak fabrika kadoras tuir spesifiksaun ne’ebé ass hodi uza ba kampu GS no Kompania Allseas ne’ebé mak iha Ro’o boot naran Herema hodi Instala kadoras husi Kampu GS ba iha Beaco, hodi sira mós bele fornese EPC + Finance (acordo comercial).

iii. Planta LNG rasik: mós TG tenke esforsu makas ko’alia ho parte intresado balun ne’ebé hatudu ona sira ninian hakarak atu involve mos iha planta ne rasik. Espera katak iha tempo badak ita bele finaliza ona discusaun sira ne. Signifika prosesu hirak ne’ebé governu anterioir realiza ona liu-liu investimentu ba kampu GS, governu atuál tenke servisu makas hodi kontinua dezempena nune’e hodi asegura pipeline mai TL no garantia indepensia ekonomia.

Asuntu tékniku ne’ebé importante katak Investimentu ba downstream ou fasilidade refinaria no planta LNG ne’ebé sei harii iha TL la’ós de’it produs ou likifika gas husi kampu greater sunrise (GS) ho potensia rezervatoriu 8.4 TCF, maibé mós sei produs kampu seluk lokaliza iha tasi Timor identifikadu ho rezervatoriu gas mak kampu gas Chuditch, kampu gas Kelp Deep ho estimasaun, no poténsia gas em jerál iha territóriu TL (Fontes informasaun: ANPM). Nune’e mós, Poténsia petroleum seluk ne’ebé mak deskoberta ona mak hanesan kampu Jahal, Kuda Tasi, Squilla no Krill lokaliza iha Block 11-106, opera husi kompanya Eni, INPEX no TIMOR GAP. Inklui liu 65% área ne’ebé mamuk, prospetus no deskoberta ona hanesan kampu gas Kelp Deep 13 TCF, Chuditch 0.75 Tcf, sst, lokaliza iha ex-JPDA. Tuir kontratu fahe produsaun ou production sharing contract (PSC) iha área Esklusiva (Eni, Galp and KOGAS halo hela explorasaun). Iha área Exklusiva, 85% sei mamuk, katak seidauk iha lisensa de explorasaun.

Enkuantu iha Timor Gap onshore block (bloku rai maran); Block A (PSC TL-OT-17-08), B, and C (PSC TL-OT-17-09). TL nia potensia Petroleum iha rai maran mak: Aimaulin Seep, Horba Seep, Holmesel Seep, Lour Seep, Aisaleuk Seep, Atalele Seep, Aliambata Seep no Badulobo Seep. Fatin sira nee konsidera potensia ou prospetu ba petroleum ou konsidera nudar gas natural nebee suli husi rai okos sai mai rai leten ou bain-bain hanaran gas seep. Fatin sira nee identifika liu husi SURVEI AÉREO GEOFÍSIKA, ne’ebé kompostu husi estudu Aero Magnetic and Radiometric; atu deteta fatuk nia Magnetismu no Radioactive, Aero Gravity: atu deteta densidade husi fatuk no Survei Aéreo Geofísika mais detalhadu (Magneto Telluric no Electromagnetic (EM)) (Fontes Informasaun: Timor Gap E.P).

Objektivu harii fasilidade refinaria no planta LNG hodi produs no liquifica poténsia petroleum nebee deskoberta ona iha teritoriu TL. Nune’e mos iha tempu badak sei hala’o atividade perfurasaun ba kampu petroleum iha Suai ne’ebé opera husi Timor Resources, kuandu la iha fasilidade prosesamentu produsaun ou refinaria hodi prosesa hidrokarbunetu refere konserteza presiza exporta hidrokarbunetu nebee produs exporta ba nasaun seluk hanesan Indonesia, Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, no ect, hodi halo prosesamentu molok faan ba merkadu, signifika ita kria kampu trabalho ba ema estranjeiru no osan suli ba nasaun estranjeiru. Tanba nee planu harii refinaria no planta LNG importante tebes hodi produs no sustentabiliza atividade indústria petroleum iha TL.

Saida mak TG presiza halo molok dezenvolve kampu GS?. TG nia partisipasaun 56.56% iha kampu GS stratejiku tebes tamba wainhira hahu dezenvolve kampu GS sei tulun profesionaliza Timor Gap no timoroan liu husi transfer esperiensia, konhesementu, siensia no teknolojia. Ikus mai forma Timor Gap (TG) sai bem preparadu, kompetetivu no futuru mai TG bele sai kompanya provider iha industria minarai global. TG nia partisipasaun maioritariu iha kampu GS fo certeza boot hodi asegura pipeline mai TL, inkluindu fo podér boot ba TG involve iha foti desijaun futuru GS, bele mos veta kompanya operador Woodside nia planu wainhira la tuir TL nia planu no objektivu.

Lee Mós :
Metanoia: Mudansa Iha Hanoin, Iha Fuan No Iha Hahalok ‘Hakribit imi an ba, hodi fila ba dalan diak. Basá, Reino Lalehan besik ona’

Molok dezenvolve kampu GS, Timor Gap nudar national oil company (NOC) hamutuk ho kompanya operador Woodside no joint venture Osaka ho parseria seluk diskute intensifika no holistikumente sobre estudu, dadus ligadu ho rezervatoriu real hydrokarbunetu ou mina no gas iha kampu GS (proven reserve), estudu impaktu ambientál projetu no investimentu projetu intermu upstream, midstream no downstream. Objetivu husi diskusaun intensifika entre kompanya Woodside, Osaka, NOC ho nia parseria hodi hetan konkordansia no intendementu util sobre planu dezenvolvimentu futuru kampu GS.

Bainhira hetan ona konkordansia no unifika ona dadus no estudus tomak, etapa tuir mai kompanya operador ho joint venture sei submete planu dezenvolvimentu kampu GS (Field Development Plan/FDP) ba host country ou governence board hodi tetu, analiza no evalua didi’ak molok foti desizaun aprova ou veta. Karik host country ou governence board approva no fo lisensa, hafoin kompanya operador ho joint venture bele hahú halo explorasaun no produsaun ba mina no gas iha kampu GS. Governence board sei kompostu husi reprezentante entidade husi nasaun rua TL ho Australia. Governence board nu’udar órgaun alto, nia knar mak sei kontrola, asegura lisensa no operasaun atividade tomak ne’ebé sei opera iha kampu GS.

Saida mak FDP?. FDP hanesan prosesu core bisnis iha indústria upstream mina no gas. FDP esensi tebes tanba bazeia ba evaluasaun holistiku kona-ba subsurface reservoir (fatin akumulasaun mina no gas ne’ebé iha tasi okos ou rai okos), optimizasaun fasilidade rai maran hodi halo produsaun no prosesamentu ba mina no gas. FDP ajuda ita hatene kona-ba estimasaun no rezervatóriu petroleum nebee akumula iha reservoir, kuantidade hydrokarbunetu, valor ekonomia, komersial, fatin prosesamentu no transportasaun mina no gas, perfile expektasaun produsaun iha futuru, mitigasaun risku, inklui demanda merkadu (buyer), no ect.

Ezemplu FDP ne’ebé aplikadu iha Norwegia, no fiar iha TL aplika mos FDP ne’ebé hanesan tanba iha vantajem dupla no win-win solution tantu ba Governu no Kompanya Operador ho Joint Venture. Iha Norwegia FDP kontrola husi Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) ezerse nia kna’ar no fungsaun enome governu tuir legal framework. NPD mak bele fo kontratu no lisensa ba kompanya hodi halo explorasaun mina no gas. Nune’e mós iha TL, ANPM mak nu’udar instituisaun reguladora, jere, fo kontratu, no fo lisensa ba kompanya minarai hodi explora rekursu minarai ne’ebé lokalija iha area TL tantu iha tasi laran (offshore) no rai maran (onshore).

Tamba nee wainhira kompanya operador ho joint venture submete nia planu operasaun no dezenvolvimentu ou plan for operation and development (POD) hodi dejenvolve kampu greater sunrise, faktores prinsipal liu ne’ebé governu TL tenke hare didi’ak mak; iha POD tenke kompostu husi: estudu dezenvolvimentu no istória appraisal kampu minarai, produsaun geologia, teknolojia reservoir, teknolojia perfurasaun no produsaun, instalasaun no fasilidade, operasaun no manutensaun, analijasaun ekonomia (presu mundial mina no gas, net present value (NPV) no internal rate of return (IRR), pre-tax no after tax, kustu Capex (capital expenditure), no Opex (operating expenditure)), safety no enviromentu, organizasaun projetu no ezekusaun, ate to’o futuru dezenvolvimentu projetu no dezvantelasaun projetu bainhira remata eksploitasaun iha kampu greater sunrise.

Parametru ne’ebé mensionadu leten, ne’e mak bain-bain integra iha POD molok dezenvolvimentu kampu minarai no gas. Detailasaun ba parametru POD tuir pratika normative industria minarai ou tuir termu petroleum hanesan tuir mai:

I. Produsaun geologia iha POD kompostu husi: strutura geolojia, stratigrafi no sedimentolojia, petrophisics konaba fatuk, estimasaun volume mina inklui rezerva mina no gas.

II. Teknolojia reservoir iha POD kompostu husi: estimasaun reservoir mina no gas, perfil produsaun mina no gas, estudu sensitivitas, estimasaun nebee inherente ho uncertainties rezervatoriu, rekursus adisional no futuru improve oil recovery (IOR), inklui gestaun ba reservoir.

III. Teknolojia perfurasaun no produsaun iha POD kompostu husi: aspeitu perfurasaun, aspeitu produsaun, no aspeitu komplesi ba posu mina no gas.

IV. Fasilidades no instalasaun iha POD kompostu husi: strutura plataforma ou marine fasilities, aranjamentu topside no fasilidades subsea (tasi okos), fasilidade auxiliary no prosesamentu, sistema metring, transportasaun no storage, reabilidade ou equipamentu “up-time”, konstraint no posibilidade kampu mina sira seluk, inklui estimasaun kustu Capital (capital cost estimate).

V. Operasaun no manutensaun iha POD kompostu husi: prinsipal operasaun, mining no organizasaun, inklui kustu operasaun.

VI. Analijasaun ekonomia iha POD kompostu husi: asumsaun presu mundial mina no gas, dezenvolvimentu currency, tarrifa, lukru no despezas, hare mos net present value (NPV) no internal rate of return (IRR), molok no depois kona taxa (pre-tax and after tax), kustu Capex (capital expenditure), no Opex (operating expenditure).

VII. Safety no enviromentu iha POD kompostu husi: konseptu no gestaun safety, isu ambiental no servisu sira nebee respondente iha situasaun emerjensia, lokalijasaun diskarga, polusaun no emisaun nebee afeita ba ambiental. Presiza evalua no hare didiak.

VIII. Organijasaun projeitu no ezekusaun iha POD kompostu husi: faze dezenvolvimentu, milestone, organizasaun projeitu, mining, no jestaun kualidade ba projeitu.

Objektivu husi evaluasaun hirak iha leten para prova katak bele asegura jestaun ba reservatoriu mina no gas, jestaun ba eksploitasaun (foti mina no gas husi rai/tasi okos), asegura tempu no investimentu fundu Capex no Opex, sistema metering ligasaun ho regulamentu no evaluasaun ba projeitu, ikus mai asegura impaktu ba enviromentu, mitigasaun risku, asegura kualidade projeitu, liu-liu asegura investimentu no dezastre finanseiru.

Lee Mós :
Greater Sun Rise, TL ho Austrália Diskute Isu Rua

Iha vida industria minarai sempre inherente ho risku, maibe industria nemos mai ho nia metodu rasik hodi identifika risku, mitiga risku hodi optimiza projeitu. Evaluasaun holistiku involve estudu, dadus, konhesementu, siensia no teknolojia nebee sophistikadu sei asegura sucessu ba projeitu.

Tamba nee molok kompanya operador ho joint venture submete nia POD ba governu hodi dezenvolve kampu mina no gas iha kampu GS. TL no Australia nudar host country liu husi governence board presiza tetu, analija no evalua didiak aspeitu teknika no non-teknika nebee integra iha POD tuir pratika normativa industria minarai, nunee bele asegura kualidade projeitu, asegura investimentu no fo garantia retornu ba sustentabilidade ekonomia TL liu-liu hodi diversifika rendimentu minarai para asegura sustentabilidade rendimentu nasional hodi finansia dezenvolvimentu nasional.

Estudu exploratoriu no simulasaun ekonomia hatudu futuru Profit Greater Sunrise bele fó $28 billioens to’o $54 bilioens ba Timor-Leste (Fontes; Timor Gap, EP.) Returno Economico: (Base Case/Conservativu), TIMOR GAP total $12 Biloens, Governo TL total $16 Biloens (inklui: royalty, lukru no imposto). Total retornu: $28 Biloens, Returno Economico: (TIMOR GAP Case), TIMOR GAP total: $28.7 Biloens, Governo Timor – Leste total: $25.6 Biloens (inklui: royalty, lukru no imposto), Total retornu: $54 Biloens (Aprezentasaun TG iha CCD no Parlamentu Nasional).

Profit indikator nebee bain-bain uja iha industria minarai hodi atrai kompanya owner, service ho EPC halo investimentu mak; net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), benefit cost ratio (B/C), no payback of time (POT). Kompanya sempre investa wainhira valor IRR boot liu minimum actractive of return (MARR). Analizasaun project economics nudar sasukat ba companya operador, joint venture no host country foti desijaun ba dezenvolvimentu projeitu kampu GS. Komersialidade kampu greater sunrise depende ba demanda gas iha merkadu (buyer), presu (price) no rezerva mina no gas (reserve). God bless TL. (**)

Referensia:

[1] Journal no livru: Petroleum fiscal systems and contracts, Hamburg, 2010.

[2] Internet web: http://noticias.sapo.tl/portugues/info/artigo/1531899.html

[3] Internet web:http://web.anpm.tl/

[4] California Energy Commission. “Liquefied Natural Gas Safety.” Asesu dia 15 Oktober 2007, web:http://www.energy.ca.gov/lng/safety.html

[5] Internet web:http://www.tatoli.tl/…/31-marsu-2019-fundu-pertoleu…/

[6] Internet web:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHUb01eKH0E

[7] TVTL, GMNTV no Radio (8 Dezembru 2018): “Semináriu nasional kona-ba asuntus relasionadus ho fronteiras marítimas no nia impaktu ba atividades petrolíferas.”, Sentru Konvensaun Dili (CCD).

[8] TVTL, GMNTV no Radio (8 Janeiru 2019): “Aprezentasaun husi Chefi negosiador, ANPM, Timor Gap ep., kona-ba asuntus relasionadus ho fronteiras marítimas no sosa asoens conocophillips no shell energy.”, Parlamentu Nasional (PN).

[9] Internet web:https://www.facebook.com/TimorSeaBoundary/

[10] Atlantic LNG (2007). Web: http://www.atlanticlng.com/

[11]Internet web:https://www.timorgap.com/databases/website.nsf/vwall/home

[12] internet web; http://gmntv.tl/…/explorasaun-kampu-gs-sei-fo…/…

[13] Internet web:https://www.facebook.com/TimorSeaBoundary/

[14] Atlantic LNG (2007). Web: http://www.atlanticlng.com/

[15] Audley-Charles, M.G. (1968). “The Geology of Portuguese Timor.” Memoirs of the Geological Society of London N. 4.

[16] Bechtel Corporation. Image on website courtesy of ConocoPhillips Darwin LNG. Asesu dia 24 Oktober 2007. Web: http://www.hydrocarbons-technology.com/…/darwin/darwin3.html

[17] BP (2007). “Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2007.” Accessed December 2007 at http://www.bp.com/productlanding.do…

[18]Internet web:https://www.timorgap.com/databases/website.nsf/vwall/home

[19] Choudry, Aziz (2003). “Blood, Oil, Guns and Bullets.” Znet. Asesu dia 24 Oktober 2007, Web: http://www.countercurrents.org/us-choudry281103.htm

[20] Cockcroft, Peter (2007). “Integrated development of Greater Sunrise Gas: The Timor-Leste National Interest Case.” Apresentasi iha Dili, 13 April 2007.

[21] ConocoPhillips (2007). “The Darwin LNG Plant – Pioneering Aeroderivative Turbines for LNG Refrigeration Service.” Aprezenta iha oin GE Oil and Gas Conference, Florence Italia, 29-30 Januari 2007. Web: http://lnglicensing.conocophillips.com/…/0B574590-6124-462D… A5F092BC4FC2/0/DarwinLNGGEOilandGasConference.ppt

[22] East Timor Land Law Program (2004). “Report on Research Findings, Policy Options and Recommendations for a Law on Land Rights and Land Restitution.” Written by ARD, ho ajuda husi CNIC, Direktora teras no Propriadade RDTL, USAID, Juli 2004.

[23] Fay, James A. (2003a). “Model of Spills and Fires from LNG and Oil Tankers” Journal of Hazardous Materials, B96-2003, 171-188, 2003. Abstraksi iha web: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez…

[24] Fay, James A. (2003b). “Spills and Fires from LNG Tankers in Fall River (MA).” Asesu dia 10 Desember 2007 di http://www.greenfutures.org/projects/LNG/Fay.html

[25] Foss, Michelle M. (2003a). “An Introduction to LNG.” Center for Energy Economics, The University of Texas at Austin, January 2003.

[26] Foss, Michelle M. (2003b) “LNG Safety and Security.” Center for Energy Economics, The University of Texas at Austin, October 2003. No Ghazvinian, J. (2007). “Untapped: The Scramble for Africa’s Oil.” Publika husi Harcourt, Inc.

[27] Global Witness (2005). “Paying for Protection: The Freeport mine and the Indonesian security forces,” July 2005.

[28] Government of India. (2005). “Economic Survey.” Ministry of Finance, 27 February 2005. Asesu dia 29. Desember 2007. Web: http://indiabudget.nic.in/es2005-06/esmain.htm

[30] Gusmão, Amandio (2006). “An Overview of Timor-Leste’s Resources.” Direktora Nasional ba Mina dan Gas RDTL.

[31] Hightower, M. and Luketa-Hanlin, A. (2006a). “Guidance on Safety and Risk Management of Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spills Over Water.” Aprezentasaun PowerPoint, U.S. Department of Energy LNG Forums 2006.

[32] Hightower, M., Gritzo, L., Luketa-Hanlin, A., Covan, J., Tieszen, S., Wellman, G., Irwin, M., Kaneshige, M., Melof, B., Morrow, C., Ragland, D. (2006b). “Guidance on Risk Analysis and Safety Implications of a Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spill Over Water.” Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia Report SAND2004-6258. Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550. Asesu dia 12 Desember 2007 di http://www.fossil.energy.gov/…/stor…/lng/sandia_lng_1204.pdf

[33] Hoffman, Nicholas (2007). APrezentasaun no diskusaun iha Meja bundar LNG di Dili, 13 April 2007. No ect.

[34] internet web; http://gmntv.tl/…/explorasaun-kampu-gs-sei-fo…/…

[34] SPE, 2019.

[35] GSSR, 2018.

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