“Oinsá Valores Kristaun bele sai Baze ba Demokrasia”: Perspektiva Filozófika husi AGOSTO POTO

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Adelino Do Santos Elo (Dino Elo)

Posted On September 24, 2021, Isfit. Edu.Tl

Husi : Adelino Do Santos Elo (Dino Elo)

Introdusaun  

Em primeiro lugar atan ha’u respeitu no valoriza ba eskritór Agosto Poto ninia artigu ou opiniaun ne’ebé furak bainhira ita lee de’it husi nia tema maibé iha ha’u nia perspektiva rasik se la furak bainhira ha’u tama liu ba laran, (Duc In Altum).  Atan ha’u hakarak halo introdusaun ne’ebé lo’os no kle’an  ba eskritór Agosto Poto, nu’udar estudante ISFIT  ho ninia artigu ne’ebé publika iha media Instítuto Superíor de Filosofia e de Teologia, D. Jaime Garcia Goulart iha dia/data 24 Setembro 2021 ho nia tema  “Oinsa Valores Cristaos Bele Sai Base Ba Democracia Perspektiva Filosofia”.

Destinçao:

  • primeiro, sentidu no implementasaun demokrasia.”
  • Segundo, valores cristãos sai base ba democracia.

Opiniaun nee refere ba sarani katolika iha Timor-leste ou povu Timor-Leste (democracia ho valores cristão?). Tanba sa mak halo reduksaun husi valores da igreja hodi tau iha prátika da sistema demokrasia? Eskritor nain ba artigu, halo reduksaun husi valores religiaun ida entre ida sai sasukat hodi tau ba prátika sistema democracia?

Politics is inseparable from life – from human concerns, moral considerations, religious and secular beliefs, modes of living, inherited myths, dreams, night mares; from preconceptions and presupositions about fundamental issues, transcendent themes and values; and from distinction between right and wrong, good and evil, pleasure and pain, freedom and tyranny, egotism and altruism. Ultimate questions, even if unanswerable, are never irrelevant to the politics of free men.

 Country, Citizens, Religion , Ethic of care, Pro-existence, Democracy, Theocracy and Politic.

Contexto

Iha livro ida ho nia tema the City of God , Santo Agostinho halo diferente  tuir konsensus Nasaun, mak City of God (ne’ebé harii domin ba Maromak) no City Of Men (ne’ebé harii domin ba ita nia aan rasik). Claramente princípio domin husi Marómak ne’ebé hatuur a’an liu husi domin entre ita ho ema seluk, respeita ema nia direitu, respeita religiaun seluk (kemerdekaan setiap orang inilah yang menjadi prinsip demokrasi.)

Santo Paulus hanorin mai ita katak, “sebab dalam satu Roh kita semua, baik orang Yahudi, maupun orang Yunani, baik budak, maupun orang merdeka, telah dibaptis menjadi satu tubuh dan kita semua diberi minum dari satu Roh”

(1 Kor 12:13, Kol 3:11).

Em principalmente bainhira ita koalia kona ba Igreja, religiaun, no democracia, politica, ao passo ke a não ser ou la presiza halo reduksaun husi valores religiaun entre ida ba ida hodi sai sasukat no tau ba pratica iha sistema democracia. Quanto mais artigu ne’e hakerek ba povo Timor-leste tomak. Seolah-olah haluha tiha religiaun sira seluk nia existensia iha ita nia rai doben Timor-leste ate fim Cria deskriminção da ideologia

Religiaun ne’ebé berani  hala’o discernment hamutuk, la’ós de’it ko-eksistensi maibé moss pro-eksistensi

            One of research methods to analyze religion is phenomenology. This method begins with the phenomenon that appears in consciousness. Experience of religion from the perspective of phenomenon which enable someone to get eidos or the essence of religion. From this point of view, subject could distinguish which one constitutes essence or eidos and which one is meremanifestation. This ability is succeeding subject to understand the religion properly. Subject that understands religion properly usually have an ability to accept and celebrates diversity. Besides, subject will always realize that his existence is always in a relation with existence. This awareness of co-existence at the end leads subject to grow up in the paradigm of pro-existence. It is so crucial a moment amid several violence that takes place in the name of religion in Timor-Leste that co-existence must be promoted.

Argumentasaun Fenomenologia ba Religiaun

Koalia kona aspek fenomenologia religiaun katak religiaun ida-idak sempre iha base da estrutura mak, eksistensial, intelektual, institusional no ethical. Husi aspeito haat nee sei sai fundamental da ajuda ho haforsa atu hetan eidos ou hakekat religiaun ida-idak.

  • Estrutura da base, primeiro, aspeito ekstensia sempre iha fiel ou fiar (iman dan kepercayaan). Aspeito eksistensia moss lori atu hatene oinsa identidade no moss way of life ba fiar nain ba religiaun ida-idak,(penganut suatu agama).
  • Estrutura da base, Segundo, Aspeito intelektual sempre halo relasaun ou konsep ho Maromak. Koalia kona ba Maromak sempre iha proposisaun-proposisaun ne’ebé simu husi ita nia hanoin (akal budi). Ho objetivo ne’ebé clara ba ita nia fiel ba Maromak hodi bele iha responsabilidade rasik ne’ebé ho rasional. Responsável ba fiel ne’ebé ho rasional katak ita nian fiar ba Maromak sai hanesan pertimbangan ne’ebé haree husi base logika. Ho ida nee moos too ikus sei sai riku ba fiar no komprensaun, (fides quaerens intellectum). Fiar sempre sai sentru ba rasional no oinsa ita ema entrega a’an ou fo a’an tomak ba mistério Maromak nian.
  • Estrutura da base terceiro, aspeito institusional, sempre iha relasaun ho organizasaun ba religiaun, (kelembagaan no perorganisasian agama), ho ida nee moos, bainhira liu husi organizasaun ruma halo ita oinsa atu hatene klean liu tan kona ita nia fiar ba Maromak, sai dezenvolvido no sei hatutan husi gerasaun ba gerasaun. Husi ida nee moos atu dehan katak iha organisaun religiaun bele halo ita oinsa hatene, hametin no habelar ita nia fiar (depositum fidei).
  • Estrutura da base quarto, aspeito etikal sempre relsaun ho moris ba mundu nian katak life world (dunia kehiduapan), no (tanggunjawab terhadap ‘wajah’ yang lain).

Estrura da base ha’at ne’ebé mak ha’u mensiona iha leten oinsa lori ita atu deskobre lolos ita nia eidos ou ba ita nia religiaun rasik, (hakekat atau wajah sebuah agama). Tamba ne’e fatin ida ne’ebé mak ita hetan dame no moris nia hun, Ho ida ne’e atan ha’u hakarak halo clarificação ne’ebé kle’an  kona ba  Agosto poto nia artigu, no atu haloos la’ós haliis hodi sai complicado. Iha nee atan ha’u hili pozisaun sai hanesan etika do tempo (momen etis), katak tempo ida ne’ebé mak ha’u esforsar ba ethics of care, (etika kepeduliaan).

Political ethic in the life of nation state is a human effort to think basically about the goodness and wisdom of running all aspects in state and nation life. In order to find the answer, how the good living in state and nation can be applied, the political ethic not only relate to power and its system but also to human life. Therefore, politic cannot be given to politicians or political scientists. It needed a kind of humanity and ethics paradigms as human basic attitude that can be agreed by all citizens in the state. This article discuss about the important of political ethic in the life of state and nation today, especially for a country Timor-Leste.

Tamba ne’e husi artigu ida nee, tuir ha’u nia haree, lee no akompanha hamosu buat bale ne’ebé laloos ou la tuir dalan ou sai complicado da ideia espesialmente ba valores cristao ne’ebé hatuur aan ba sistema democracia. Ho religiaun ida nia naran hatuur aan ba sistema democracia. Husi ida ne’e ha’u krítika makaas hodi bele defende existensia religiaun hotu-hotu ne’ebé mak  iha rai doben Timor-Leste. Ita hatene katak neneik ba bebeik sei hamoris deskriminasaun da idelogia. Tamba ne’e atan ha’u nia perspektivo katak artigu nee la cientifico sei hamosu Teokrasia.

Hakat” Rekuňese Existensia Religiaun

Husi ida nee mak ita bele hatene no konsiente katak partisipasaun religiaun hot-hotu iha Timor-leste barak. Tamba nee tenki iha kepedulian entre ida ba ida no keta halo diskriminasaun da ideologia. Religiaun hotu-hotu iha nia valores. ´Atas dasar ada di dalam dunia secara bersama-sama, dunia sudah selalu merupakan dunia yang kudiami bersama dengan orang-orang lain. Dunia Dasein adalah dunia bersama. Ada di dalam adalah ada bersama (being with others) orang-orang lain.

Relasaun entre religiaun no nasaun sai hanesan buat ne’ebé atual ida-idak tuir nia fase dinamika ne’ebé dezenvolve liu husi “dunia Barat ao mezmo tempo dunia Timur”. Diskusaun ida nee sai hanesan abut problema da nasaun, apakah sai hanesan termo integral, simbiotik ou sekuler. Base de argumentasaun hermeneutica Martin Heidegger ne’ebé ho metode komparativa.

 Religion is the vision of something which stand beyond behind and within passing flux of immediate things; something which is remote possibility, and yet the greatest antithesis is solved by rating types of order in relative importance according to their success in magnifying the individual actualities, that is to say, in promoting strength of experience (Alfred North Whitehead).

Bainhira ita ko’alia kona ba religiaun, siknificado luan, sai hanesan manórin ba pedoman carakteristika ba ita ema ida-idak. Religiaun sempre hanorin ita oinsa hatudo karakter ne’ebé digno ba ita nia a’an, ema seluk, natureza, no Marómak. Dala ruma entre religiaun ne’ebé mak la hanesan maibé iha buat balu mak sai hanesan universal no diak atu hanesan ba religiaun ida-idak, iha nia ritual ida-idak no oinsa atu halo diak. Filosófo platao , esperansa ba moris, halo ha’u aten brani atu hasoru ba ha’u nia mate, (kematian) no ba ema seluk nia mate ou ba ema ida ne’ebé mak ha’u hadomi, (commom sense). Albert Einstein, ciệncia la iha religiaun delek, religiaun la iha ciencia paralisado, Confusius, oinsa iha ikus sei sai hanesan diak se bainhira mundu nee la diak? Socrates, finje la hatene hanesan husi hahalok aat (kejahatan).

Democracia versus Teokrasia

            Ita hotu hatene katak Nasaun Timor-Leste adopta sistema democracia ne’ebé hatu’ur metin ona iha constituicao da RDTL : Artigu 1.º

(A República)

  1. A República Democrática de Timor-Leste é um Estado de direitu democrático, soberano, independente e unitário, baseado na vontade popular e no respeito pela dignidade da pessoa humana.
  2. O dia 28 de Novembro de 1975 é o dia da Proclamação da Independência da República Democrática de Timor-Leste

Termo literal, democracia mak kbi’it husi povo. Democracia mai husi lian Yunani “demos” (povo) katak povu ou (penduduk satu tempat,) no, “cratos” ou “cratein” katak poder , kbi’it no beran (kekuasaan atau kedalautan)” “demos-cratos” (democracia) mak poder no beran ba povo, kbi’it ne’ebé a’as no boot hatuur a’an husi desizaun povo, povo mak ukun, governo nain mak povo, no poder husi povo.

Termo terminologia, democracia tuir Joseph A. Schmeter, sai hanesan plano institusional ida atu hetan desizaun política iha ne’ebé hatuur a’an ba individu-individu hodi hetan poder ho strategia esforçar komparativa ba nia povo.         Ho nunee moos affan gaffer (2000) halo significado democracia nba parte rua mak, hanesan normatif (democracia normatif) no empirik (Democracia emperik.) Husi ida nunee iha perte rua sei clarifika ho klean katak, democracia normative mak hanesan democracia ida ne’ebé ideal ne’ebé hala’o husi Nasaun. No moss iha parte seluk , democracia empirik katak democracia ida iha objetivo ba mundo política ne’ebé hatuur ba prátika.

Nu’udar ema kriasaun hanesan ema políticos zoon politikon, (makhluk politik) cada vez ita ema moris hanesan dinamika ida sempre nakonu ho politica, diak hanesan sujeto ne’ebé halo politika ao mezmo tempo hanesan objeto ne’ebé hafanu husi politika. Atu dehan de’it katak sai pontu kulminante ba ita ema ne’ebé moris hanesan dinamika ne’ebé nia abut husi nasaun ida sempre halo sirkulasaun sujeto no objeto. Ho nunee atu dehan de’it katak, iha parte seluk, ema balu sai hanesan lideransa politico ao mezmo tempo mo’os hanesan povo sai sasin ba política, bele mo’os hanesan sujeto (pelaku) política.

Hirak ne’ebé mak ita tau fiar ou esperansa oinsa atu hatudu no hala’o política ne’ebé lao ho digno mak sujeto ne’ebé sempre habelit ho politica ne’ebé realidade, ho nune’e mos em jeralmente do povo mak sujeto, siknifika aspeito ba ema  moris no aktividade hanesan povo ne’ebé fo influệnçia ba mundo política em direitamente e ao mezmo tempo indereitamente.

Exemplo konkreto de’it ba ita nia líder politicos, Laho bainhira hamriik iha nia knu’uk, fatin haksubar a’an mak fatin ida ne’ebé ema labele hatene mak hanaran “KUAK”. Bainhira laho hamri’ik iha nia fatin haksubar a’an nia oin ou odamatan nia oin, maneira fihir hatudu katak “atu ba fatin ruma hodi halo buat ruma”. Laho hakarak sai husi nia fatin hodi buka hahan ruma, maibé iha nia laran nakonu ho admira tamba keta halo ba ha’u mak sai hahan ba samea.

Husi parte ida ne’ebé mak sai  diferente ba maneira fihir entre ou  husi laho nia matan bainhira hamrik iha odamatan haksubar aan ho “Lider politicos” maneira fihir, haree, koalia, bainhira hamriik iha “Panggung kampanye?”

Hafurak ita nia matan bainhira ita haree referensia ida nee ho fuan maibé nakonu ho promote. Refensia ida nee atan eskritór foti husi livro Francis Fukuyama, The End Of History and The Last Man. Oinsa hatene sai politicos ne’ebé diak katak lidera nia povu ho fuan. Tamba nee eskritór nia artigu koko atu anti- religion entre ida ba ida. Relasiona ho politica Assím mas ho sistema  democracia é não.

Konlusaun

 Ha’u rasik respeita ita boot nia artigu tamba bele halo relasaun entre igreja ho política, ao mezmo tempo hare’e situasaun ne’ebé ho realidade akontese iha ita nia rain doben Timor- Leste. Ao passo ke hatuur sala nia fatin oinsa relasiona  ba sistema democracia

Teokrasi adalah bentuk pemerintahan dimana prinsip-prinsip Ilahi memegang peran utama. Kata “teokrasi” berasal dari bahasa Yunani θεοκρατία (theokratia). θεος (theos) artinya “Tuhan” dan κρατειν (kratein) “memerintah”. Teokrasi artinya “pemerintahan oleh wakil tuhan”.

Teokrasi adalah sistem pemerintahan yang menjunjung dan berpedoman padaprinsip Ilahi. Teokrasi merupakan bentuk identitas yang lebih absolut dalam sistem Agama Negara. Dimana pemimpin negara juga sekaligus pemimpin agama spiritual.

Husi atan ha’u atu hakle’an liu tan katak husi eskritór agosto poto ninia artigu hatudo momos katak la cientifico. Tamba nee objetivo husi ha’u nia komplein ou perspektiva katak artigu nee kria nasaun Timor-Leste la’ós haksumik aan ba sistema democracia maibé sai fali nasaun Teokrasia. Tamba nee husi nia artigu kria substansia ne’ebé diferente teb-tebes ne’ebé haree husi perspektiva sistema democracia. Sistema democracia la’ós religiaun katolika nian de’it maibé religiaun hot-hotu ne’ebé mak existesia iha nasaun Timor-Leste.

Atan ha’u hatehe katak sentidu democracia nia implementasaun so em jeralmente tuir cotexto katak democracia nee ema mak harii tamba ita ema nudar nain ba kbiit no poder nia hun. Atu sai problematica mak valores cristão tamba lori instituição ida nia naran katak igreja ou lori religiaun ida nia existensia ba participasaun poder hodi halo aplikasaun ba sistema democracia.

Relasiona ho Politica Assím Más Sistema Democracia é Não, enguanto koko atu halo anti-religion e pro- Existence iha nasaun Timor- Leste.

Referensia :

Magnis Soseno, Frans. 1988. Etika Politik. Gramedia. Jakarta.

Nor, Deliar. 1997. Etika Politik dan Negara Demokrasi. Unisia No.

  1. Yokyakarta.

Demokrasi, USA: Office of International Information

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